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Latinas 2017-07-28T05:56:00+00:00

LATINAS AND BREAST CANCER

 

 

 

 Prevalence and biological factors contributing to breast cancer in Latinas:

  • Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer for Latinas (29%).
  • Latinas have a 90.2 per 100,000 incidence of developing breast cancer.
[i]
  • 17,100 Latinas are expected to be diagnosed annually with breast cancer in 2012.[ii]
  • Latinas are less likely to participate in mammography screening and more likely to be diagnosed at later stages of breast cancer.[iii]
  • The breast cancer incidence rate in Latinas is 26% lower than in non-Hispanic white women.
  • Among Latinas, the incidence rate is 50% lower in foreign-born women than in US-born women.
  • Research by Watlington, A.T. Byers, T., Mouchawar, J., Sauaia, A., and Ellis, J.(2007) found:[iv]

    • Latinas are 2.7 times more likely to have stage IV breast cancer — that is, cancer that has already spread beyond the breast.
    • Latinas have a nearly twofold higher risk of estrogen-negative cancer, meaning that the cancer cannot be treated with some of the most effective cancer drugs.

    Research by Em, J., Miron A, Gong, G., Phipps, A., Felberg, A., Li, F. P., West, D. W., Whittemore, A.S. (2007) found:

    • 3.5% of Latinas examined in this study had the BRCA1 gene mutation which is linked to breast cancer;[v]
    • 8.9% of the Latinas under the age of 35 had the BRCA1 mutation.[vi]
    • Even with an early diagnosis, Latinas are more likely to have tumors that are larger and harder to treat than white women. They also seem to get breast cancer at younger ages than Caucasian women.[vii]

    Disparities and Lifestyle:

    • Latinas show lower breast cancer screening rates than non-Hispanic/Latina White women and tend to seek and attain health care services less frequently than other ethnic groups.[viii]
    • Studies consistently showed that low income, low educational attainment, lack of health insurance, inability to speak English, lack of awareness of breast cancer risks and screening methods, acculturation level and lack of physician referral play important roles in the lower rates of screening utilization by Latinas.[ix]
    • 80% of Latinas are overweight. The obesity prevalence among immigrants who have lived in the US for at least 15 years is double that of new immigrants (residence less than one year).[x]
    • Nearly 6 in 10 Latinas are not physically active, making it harder to keep a healthy weight.[xi]

    Research by Ortiz and Napoles – Springer (2007) found:

    • Latina breast cancer patients infrequently used cancer support services, despite their psychosocial morbidity were more than Caucasian women.[xii]
    • The greatest barriers to Latinas using support services were: lack of transportation, lack of familiarity with the nature of support services, and being unaware that services were available in their local area.[xiii]
    • Community advocates identified four key areas that are critical for addressing the psychosocial needs of this population: 1) the provision of simple information in Spanish on breast cancer, treatments, treatment side effects, and management of side effects; 2) knowledge of community resources; 3) cultural sensitivity; and 4) patient empowerment.[xiv] Image

    Research by Hawley, S, Janz, N.K, Hamilton, A., Griggs, A., Alderman, A.K., Mujamid, M., and Katz, S. J. (2008) found:

    • Spanish-speaking Latinas were 5.5-times more likely to be dissatisfied with the decision-making process than Caucasians when deciding on breast cancer treatment options, and 4.1-times more likely to feel regret about the decision. For English-preferring Latinas, the risk of dissatisfaction was about 2.6 times greater than it was for Caucasians.
    • It is suggested that clinicians make information about treatment options understandable and culturally appropriate, in addition to, improve the decision making process for all breast cancer patients.[xv]
    • Nearly one-third of Hispanics do not have health insurance. People who are uninsured are less likely to have a regular doctor or get preventive care, which results in poorer health overall. Latinos living in rural areas can have a hard time getting to a doctor. Cultural and language barriers can keep Latinos from explaining symptoms they are having or understanding the doctor’s advice.[xvi]

    Mortality Rates:

    • An estimated 2,400 deaths from breast cancer are expected to occur among Latinas.[xvii]
    • Latinas have a breast cancer death rate of 15.0 per 100,000—third highest behind African American and Caucasian women.[xviii]
    • From 1997-2006, female breast cancer death rates declined by 1.9% per year in non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics/Latinas.[xix]
    • Breast Cancer is the leading cause of cancer death (24%) for Latinas in the US.[xx].

     

    [i] American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2012-2014. Atlanta: American Cancer Society, Inc.

    [ii] American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2012-2014. Atlanta: American Cancer Society, Inc.

    [iii] Women’s Health.gov (2010). Minority Women’s Health: Breast Cancer. Retrieved September 5, from http://www.womenshealth.gov/minority/latina/breast-cancer.cfm.
    [iv] Watlington, A.T. Byers, T., Mouchawar, J., Sauaia, A., and Ellis, J. (1997). Does having insurance affect differences in clinical presentation between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women with breast cancer? Retrieved September 5, 2010 from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cncr.22640/abstract.
    [v] Em, J., Miron A, Gong, G., Phipps, A., Felberg, A., Li, F. P., West, D. W., Whittemore, A.S. (2007). Prevalence of pathogenic BRCA1 mutation carriers in 5 U.S. racial/ethnic groups. Journal of the American Medical Association 298(24):2869–2876.
    [vi] Em, J., Miron A, Gong, G., Phipps, A., Felberg, A., Li, F. P., West, D. W., Whittemore, A.S. (2007). Prevalence of pathogenic BRCA1 mutation carriers in 5 U.S. racial/ethnic groups. Journal of the American Medical Association 298(24):2869–2876.
    [vii] Women’s Health.gov (2010). Minority Women’s Health: Breast Cancer. Retrieved September 5 2010, from http://www.womenshealth.gov/minority/latina/breast-cancer.cfm.
    [viii] American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2012-2014. Atlanta: American Cancer Society, Inc.
    [ix] American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2012-2014. Atlanta: American Cancer Society, Inc.
    [x] Women’s Health.gov (2010). Minority Women’s Health: Overweight and Obesity. Retrieved September 5, from http://www.womenshealth.gov/minority/latina/obesity.cfm.
    [xi] Women’s Health.gov (2010). Minority Women’s Health: Overweight and Obesity. Retrieved September 5, from http://www.womenshealth.gov/minority/latina/obesity.cfm.
    [xii]Ortiz, C. and Napoles – Springer, A. (2007). Psychosocial Support Services for Latinas with Breast Cancer. Retrieved September 5, 2010 from http://www.cbcrp.org/research/PageGrant.asp?grant_id=4032.
    [xiii]Ortiz, C. and Napoles – Springer, A. (2007). Psychosocial Support Services for Latinas with Breast Cancer. Retrieved September 5, 2010 from http://www.cbcrp.org/research/PageGrant.asp?grant_id=4032.
    [xiv]Ortiz, C. and Napoles – Springer, A. (2007). Psychosocial Support Services for Latinas with Breast Cancer. Retrieved September 5, 2010 from http://www.cbcrp.org/research/PageGrant.asp?grant_id=4032.
    [xv] Hawley, S, Janz, N.K, Hamilton, A., Griggs, A., Alderman, A.K., Mujamid, M., and Katz, S. J. (2008). Latina patient perspectives about informed treatment decision making for breast cancer. Retrieved September 5, 2010 from http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE4A380N20081104?feedType=RSS
    [xvi] Women’s Health.gov (2010). Minority Women’s Health: Breast Cancer. Retrieved September 5 2010, from http://www.womenshealth.gov/minority/latina/breast-cancer.cfm.
    [xvii] American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2012-2014. Atlanta: American Cancer Society, Inc.
    [xviii] Women’s Health.gov (2010). Minority Women’s Health: Breast Cancer. Retrieved September 5, from http://www.womenshealth.gov/minority/latina/breast-cancer.cfm.
    [xix] American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2012-2014. Atlanta: American Cancer Society, Inc.
    [xx] Women’s Health.gov (2010). Minority Women’s Health: Breast Cancer. Retrieved September 5 2010, from http://www.womenshealth.gov/minority/latina/breast-cancer.cfm.